The above solved my problem. I realized that it was a problem with my personal chrome profile, not chrome itself, because I have two instances of Chrome on the same computer, both updated to the same version. One of them ran fast and smooth, the other slow when switching tabs. Deleting the cache and history of the slow profile did not help, but as stated before, deleting most of my bookmarks helped.
There seems to be something strange going on between Chrome and the Windows paging file. On my computer right now, the paging file is disabled. Maybe without one, Chrome has trouble managing the memory if there are too many things to hold in memory at once. Chrome probably tries to rebuild/refresh the bookmarks list every time you open a new tab or switch to a different tab.